The architectures of control, argues Lessig, are in fact as much driven by commerce as they are by the government, and are not, in and of themselves, a bad thing, but being ignorant of the direction we are headed toward, certainly is not good. As you read the chapter, share your thoughts on:
- How is identity and authentication played out in real space? (p. 39–43) and why is it important to have solid technologies for better authentication?
- What about identity and authentication in cyberspace? What does TCP/IP have to do with the internet’s design to protect identity and functional efficiency? (pp. 43–45).
- How does the IP address reveal a trace or provide a clue to your identity? (p. 46).What does “reverse DNS look-up” have to do with it? What role do cookies play in this process? (p. 48).
- How does SSO (single sign-on) technology provide better authentification? Which organizations use it? (p. 49). What is the Identity Layer and how is it better? (p. 50–52). What is “packet filtering” technology (p. 56)?
1. Your identity is everything that describes who you are in real life, outside of cyberspace. Authentication in cyberspace is important because at this day in age, anyone can claim that they are anyone. As soon as social security numbers or other identifying information is breached from the owner, this mystery person has every power to commit identity fraud. Solid technologies such as pictures, account information, verifying passwords, etc. that Lessig writes about is important to check and double check the authenticity of the claimed user. Just because someone has certain identifying information, does not necessarily mean they are truthful when they claim they are t hat person with a screen blocking the view of the authenticator.
2. Identity and authentication are different in cyberspace because there is very little hard evidence to determine who someone is who they say they are based on an IP address. An IP address only tells so much about a location of a computer, but the user is unknown.
3. An IP address can track the Internet service provider of the machine that you made a post on. The Internet service provider can then check its records to see which account was using the IP address of that machine at that time. Reverse DNS look-up makes this possible by going backwards and seeing which Internet Service Provider was used. Cookies allow someone to track when you traveled to a different page and it is a concern of privacy when cookies are enabled.
4. SSO (single-sign on) technology provides better authentication because it allows the user to only login once with personal information and the correct password and username. This could be a concern because if the secured information gets into the hands of the wrong person, they only need to verify the information once and they are then able to access a wide variety of applications and files. Microsoft Passport is an example of this technology. The Identity Layer is a layer in the network that is a sort of virtual wallet with all of the credentials in your wallet, except virtually. This allows certain sites to use certain aspects of information depending on the users preferences. It is better because it lets the user control precisely what information you put out there. Packet filtering technology is the passing or blocking of packets as they pass through the network.
1.) The relationship among three familiar ideas, identity, authentication, and credential, is one that is looked at to figure out someones real identity (Lessig, 39). This means who you really are, the facts about you, your name, your sex, where you live, what your education is, your driver’s license number, your social security number, etc. A driver’s license is considered a credential because it is standard. Lessig says, “We each would
be better off if we could more easily and confidently authenticate certain facts about us” (Lessig, 42). He also goes onto say that commerce would be better off as well. A major reason for this is to eliminate fraud.
2.) “Identity and authentication in cyberspace and real space are in theory the same, however in practice they are quite different” (Lessig 43). The Internet is built from a suite of protocols referred to collectively as “TCP/IP.” TCP/IP suite includes protocols for exchanging packets of data between two machines “on” theNet (Lessig, 43). Basically what happens is the system takes a bunch of data (a file,for example), chops it up into packets, and slaps on the address to which the packet is to be sent and the address from which it is sent (Lessig, 43).
3.) “The IP address itself doesn’t reveal anything about who you are, or where in physical space you come from, but it doesenable a certain kind of trace (Lessig, 46). Reverse DNS look-up allows them to go back and see what Internet Service Provider was used, while cookies allow someone to see which different pages you used.
4.) SSO allows someone to“sign-on”to a network once, and then get
access to a wide range of resources on that network without needing to
authenticate again (Lessig, 49). An example of this technology is Microsoft Passport. Identity Layer a protocol to enable a kind of virtual wallet of credentials, with all the same attributes of the credentials in your wallet—except better (Lessig, 51). It is better because this virtual wallet will not only be more reliable than the wallet in your pocket, it will also give you the ability to control more precisely what data about you is revealed to those who demand data about you (Lessig, 51). Lastly, “packet filtering” technology “is the selective passing or blocking of data packets as they pass through a network interface…. The most often used criteria are source and destination address, source and destination port, and protocol” (Lessig, 56).
1. According to the reading “identity” is not about who you are it is about your attributes. Attributes are facts about you that are true and not false. Identity in the article is described as your name, gender, etc. These facts in real space are communicated and then learned by others. The article describes authentication to be when we want to become more confident about the truth about some asserted claim than appears on its face. For instance, if I say I am a pharmacy technician people would reply with show me your license. It is important to have solid technologies for better authentication because it is a tool to prove your authentications. Technologies such as fingerprints, telegrams, etc. are very helpful in life when it comes to knowing the facts. (pg. 39)
2. The article states that identity and authentication in cyberspace are the same thing. TCP/IP suite includes protocols for exchanging packets of data between two machines on the Net. For protection of this application a design was created to see when the network was being tampered with, but the design could not see who was tampering with it. (pg. 43)
3. The IP address reveals your identity by enabling a certain kind of trace. If (1) you have gotten access to the web through an Internet Service Provider (ISP) that assigns you an IP address while you’re on the Internet and (2) that ISP keeps the logs of that assignment, then it’s perfectly possible to trace your surfing back to you. In this process a technique called “Cookies” was the solution. This technique made it possible for a web server to deposit a small bit of data on your computer when you accessed that server. That small bit of data the “cookie” made it possible for the server to recognize you when you traveled to a different page. (pg. 48)
4. Single Sign On was a technology used for people to sign on once and then get a wide range of resources from that network without having to sign on anymore. Identity Layer is a protocol to enable a kind of virtual wallet of credentials, with all the same attributes of the credentials in your wallet. It is better because it gives you the ability to control more precisely. Package Filtering is the selective passing or blocking of data packets as they pass through a network interface. (pg. 56)
1. Ones identity is absolutely everything in real life, which is different from cyberspace. In real life, if you lose your identity, you lose everything like your money, job, house, etc. In cyberspace, once you give someone your social security card or your bank account information, they have the ability to become you, just like you are you. In cyberspace, anyone can be anyone. It is important to have solid technologies for better authentication so that you don’t get tricked into letting someone else become you. It is important to have pictures and passwords. Just because someone has identification never means that they are who they say they are.
2. Identification and authentication are completely different in cyberspace than in real space. In cyberspace, there is no real life proof that someone is who they say they are. Your ordinary website will never ask for a photo or drivers license or even a SSC. In real life, you need proof of all of those to buy things and do anything important. An IP address really only tells where a computer is located and even those can be triggered and changed today. The user of that said IP address can still be anyone or anywhere.
3. The IP address doesn’t reveal any information on who or where you are located, but it does reveal ones identity through a trace. Through the ISP that has given you your IP address over the Internet, they can trace your Internet back to you. The process called “cookies” was a technique where a server could deposit or put a small amount of data on your computer in order to see when you used or accessed that server.
4. Single Sign On (SSO) was used for the Internet where someone would sign on one time to there specific website and then they would never have to sign on or in again on that site. It is great authentication because it provides and keeps your personal information. The Identity Layer is a app in the network which is just like your wallet except virtually on the computer. “Packet filtering” technology “is the selective passing or blocking of data packets as they pass through a network interface…. The most often used criteria are source and destination address, source and destination port, and protocol” (Lessig, 56).
1. Identity in real space is who you are and what makes you that person. Different attributes and characteristics shape your identity. These can include your name, birth date, social security, skin color, height, GPA, and many many other things. It is important to have solid technologies for authentication because we rely so heavily on the need for proof, and many of the things we need to prove are now technology based. Additionally it is important to have these solid technologies for privacy reasons.
2. Identity and authentication are in thought the same in real space and cyberspace, but the practice of the two are very different. The TCP/IP allows for instant anonymity in cyberspace. You must create anonymity in real space, and its difficult to do, but in cyberspace, it is handed to you. The TCP/IP allows for your identity to be protected due to the anonymity it provides, and it also allows information to travel very fast across the Net.
3. The IP address can reveal a trace or provide a clue to your identity because in “IP World” people know how to track an IP address to a server or even straight to a single computer. This would show them what computer you use, where you possibly live, what provider you use and much more. This is possible because of the reverse DNS look up, which can use the IP address and the time associated with the event to figure out who was providing you with service, and then narrow it down to you who posted a certain thing. Cookies have to do with this because it allows a server to remember a small bit of information about you, so that it will still recognize you when you move to a new page.
4. SSO technologies provide better authentication because they allow a person to sign onto a network as themselves, giving them a “name tag” and certain qualifications. This allows people to travel across the Net without the server forgetting who they are. The Identity Layer is basically a “virtual wallet” that holds all of your information, but you are in charge of it and you decide who gets to see what data and how much and when. This allows for increased levels of privacy. Packet filtering monitors what is being sent across the Net in packets and decides if the information is allowed based off of what data it can grab.
1) Identity in real space is who you are and the characteristics that make you who you are. It is very important to have a solid form of authentication because your identity can be stolen quite easily. With newer technologies being created to help protect your identity, authentication is a must these days.
2) Lessig says that “Identity and authentication in cyberspace and real space are in theory the same. In practice they are quite different.” What i think he is trying to say is that it is much easier for your identity to be taken in cyberspace than in real space. TCP/IP allows people to exchange large amounts of data very quickly by packaging the data into smaller packets and then puts an address on it so it can then be sent and received through routers to other users. It also allows for your identity to be protected.
3) IP address are a lot easier to trace than anyone realizes. I have been on xbox live and had kids playing the game trace another persons IP address and kick them off their own internet for 15 minutes. It also can show you where you live and even what computer you are on. People are very good at hacking these days and that is just one example of how easily it can happen to anyone. Cookies remembers a small amount of what you were doing and allows you to move freely on the internet to make it easier for yourself. The reverse DNS look up can figure out who posted what and track it back to said person and cookies almost makes it easier.
4) SSO is single sign on. This technology allows someone to “sign-on” to a network once, and then get access to a wide range of resources on that network without needing to authenticate again. It is very useful because it keeps your information so you do not have to do it over and over again. Identity layer is like a virtual wallet of credentials. Packet filtering is passing or blocking of data packets as they pass through a network interface.
1. Your identity is a combination of all the true facts about you, such as name, sex, address, education, etc. In person this is all found out by communicating with others and telling them these facts. Authentication of these facts is shown by physical things. An example of this would be using your credit card to pay for something and you show your ID to authenticate that it is yours. It is important to have solid technologies for better authentication because when they do not exist bad things happen to people, such as stolen identities.
2. On the Internet authentication can be easily falsified, which makes it more important to try to improve the authentication process online because people who hide behind the anonymity of their computers often will lie about a lot of things. TCP/IP suite includes protocols for exchanging packets of data between two machines ‘on’ the Net. They keep track of the IP addresses from every computer, which is how packets of data that are sent to other computers are addressed.
3. Whenever you view a webpage the router needs to know where to send the data, which is found by looking at your IP address. Your IP address does not automatically tell anything about you or where you are but if you have gotten access to the web by an Internet Service Provider that assigns you an IP address and they keep logs of that assignment then you can be traced.
4. SSO allows someone to ‘sign-on’ to a network once and then get access to a wide range of resources on that network without needing to authenticate again. This goes with the concept of our online library here at SU because we can log in and get access to books and articles that we would have had to pay for otherwise except we have to log in every time which is better security than just logging in once like with an SSO. Identity lawyer is a virtual wallet that contains all of your credit card, insurance and drivers license information. It is a more convenient way to hold all of your information. Packet filtering is the blocking or passing of data packages through a router.
1) In real life, your identity is who you are, what you look like, your reputation, the list goes on and on. Its completely different platforms, your identity on cyberspace isn’t the same as in the real world. Anyone can pretend to be anyone if they have the appropriate information on cyberspace. To determine how authentic someone is, an assertion typically determines the validity of the person. Solid technologies including fingerprint scanners will be used more and more over the next few years. I also think, to cut down on fake IDs, fingerprints will be on driver’s licenses somehow.
2) A small validity check that websites do use is a CAPTCHA. This prevents robots/computers to take the place of a person. The article states that identity and authentication in cyberspace are the same thing. TCP/IP suite includes protocols for exchanging packets of data between two machines on the Net. But in my eyes, the IP address says where the computer is, but who exactly behind that computer desk?
3) The IP reveals a trace if 1) you have gotten access to the web through an ISP that assigns you an IP address while you’re on the Internet and 2) that ISP keeps the logs of that assignment, then it’s perfectly possible to trace your surfing back to you. (p 46) Reverse DNS look-up goes back and determines what ISP was used. Cookies are used to allow someone to see which different pages you visited while you were surfing.
4) Single Sign-on allows someone to ‘sign-on’ to a network once and then get access to a wide range of resources on that network without needing to authenticate again. Microsoft Passport uses this technology. Identity Layer a protocol to enable a kind of virtual wallet of credentials, with all the same attributes of the credentials in your wallet. It’s better because it’s more personal. Packet filtering technology “is the selective passing or blocking of data packets as they pass through a network interface…. The most often used criteria are source and destination address, source and destination port, and protocol” (Lessig, 56).
1. Identity and authentication is played out in a huge way in real space. Your identity is who you are and it makes you different from everyone else. In my opinion, how you present yourself in real space is more important than cyberspace. I would not judge someone by their online profile. However, I do understand the point of having solid technologies for better authentication. This is because it would just add to a person’s identity or authentication. If you meet someone out and then look them up on their social media profile, it could just add to that person.
2. Identity and authentication in cyberspace is also important. As I said in my last answer, social media profiles are still important because they can just add to the person you are. It is important to have credible information online because people do see it. It is no secret that tons, maybe even all of employers will look at your online content. If you are not representing yourself well online, it could definitely cost you a job. TCP/IP enable the exchange of data among interconnected networks. It depicts in the article that “code is neutral about the data, and ignorant about the user,” (Lessig). It has to do with the internet’s design to protect identity and functional efficiency it makes it hard to identify people. Tracking an individual is very hard and even to the area of its difficult to regulate certain kinds of data, (Lessig).
3. IP addresses reveal a trace or provide a clue to your identity because you can track what you have been doing on the web. A person can look at your internet history and figure out what sites you visit the most. Reverse DNS looks up a certain domain name by using the IP address. This is important because it just makes it easier to track someone. DNS allows you to know exactly where the information came from. Cookies also play an important role in this process because they allow you to identify a user. They would have all the information about the user and what webpages are visited most frequently. When cookies are enabled it becomes a concern of privacy because it would be very easy for someone to track you. Enabling cookies in my mind is an invasion of privacy in cyberspace because of the function of it.
4. Single sign-on technology provides better authentication because it recognizes who you are. It does not make you go through the process of putting in your account information every time. However, this option could be a security issue. If someone gets a hold, of your computer and you are automatically signed in then they could access all your information. A few organizations that use it are Microsoft Account and any email organization such as Yahoo. Identity Layer is basically an online folder on all of your web history. It gives off what you have done on the web and where you have gone. It is better because it is a representation of who you are on the web. Packet filtering is one way in implementing firewalls. It allows packets to be passed or declined based on the IP addresses of the source and destination.
1. Identity and authentication are played out in large in real space. Your identity is what makes you unique in your own from everyone else in space. Your identity also consumes who you are as a person, your attributes and characteristics. Authentication is constantly being debated in real life according to Lessig. Authentication can be changed constantly throughout real life making it better and worse constantly. These two factors are important in characterising people and getting to know one another. This makes it important to have solid technologies to deal with the constant changes.
2. Identity and authentication is also very improtant when it comes to cyberspace. Lessig states identity and authentication in cyberspace is similar in theory to identity and authentication in real life. The differences are how they are played out in cyberspace. TCP/IP according to Lessig this creates protocol to exchange within different data packets. This allows information to be sent accross different networks.
3. IP addresses reveals your identity on the web. It does not contain any physical information about you personally but it does incorporate tracking information in order to trace you. IP addresses keep log of your information in order to trace your web browsing back to you and your personal computer. Cookies make it possible for the web browser to access your inforamtion and recognize when you travel to different pages. DNS allows users to know exactly where the information is coming from as they are surfing the web. I think these factors in the web are useful in someways but can also be seen as an invasion of privacy as they track every move you make on the web.
4. Single-sign on technology provides authentication to recognize who you are when using the web. This allows you to use a wide range of networks without needing to authenticate it again each use. It allows you to travel with all of your information at all times.
Comment above posted at 9:29 AM.. (corrected time settings)