Man, machine, and decision-making

Mar 3 reading:

Licklider’s early thesis (click here for the reading) is an interesting window into the developments in decision sciences in organizations over the next 30 years or so. Complete the reading to answer the following questions:

Q. 1.: What is man-computer symbiosis, according to Licklider, and how is it different from man-machine systems? How and what is mechanically extended man P. 2, & p. 6). How does this resonate with wearable technology, in your view?

Q. 2. What are the goals of man-computer symbiosis (p. 3) and what, according to Licklider, is the need for computer participation in human decision making (p. 4)? What are the memory hardware requirements Licklider talks about (p. 7)? Memory organization requirements (p. 9)? What is input and output equipment (p. 11)?

21 responses to “Man, machine, and decision-making

  1. 1. Man-computer symbiosis is “an expected development in cooperative interaction between men and electronic computers.” It involves 2 parts including letting computers do the thinking and calculations and also enabling the user and the computer to work together to make decisions in complex situations. Man-computer symbiosis is different from man-machine systems in that the man-computer relationship will be more effective and efficient. Mechanically extended man is the physical parts of the computer that the man cannot provide. This exemplifies wearable technology in that new technology can be worn as an extension to the human body to give the user an experience that cannot be experienced with the human eye, human arm, etc.

    2. The goals of man-computer symbiosis are to solve problems more effectively and efficiently through guided trial-and-error procedure. “One of the man aims of man-computer symbiosis is to bring the computing machine effectively into the formative parts of technical problems.” The need for computer participation in human decision-making, according to Licklider, is that the data-processing machines would “improve or facilitate thinking and problem solving.” The memory hardware requirements are books and indelible and published memory including thin-film. The memory organization requirements are that information should be retrievable by name and pattern. The most effective way to do this is through trie memory. The input and output requirements are desk-surface displays and controls, computer posted wall-displays and automatic speech production and recognition.

  2. 1.According to Licklider man-computer symbiosis is a subclass of man-machine systems. It has the goal of coupling human brains and computing machines and that they resulting partnership will think as no human brain has ever thought and process data in a way not approached by the information-handling machines we know today. This is different from man-machine systems of today because man-machine systems are a combination of human and computer brains but man-computer is a much more advanced combination of the two. Mechanically extended man is a man-machine system where the human operator supplied the initiative, the direction, the integration, and the criterion. The mechanical parts of the system were merely extensions because the human was in control, with man-computer it would be more of a partnership. This represents wearable technology because the mechanical parts were extensions of the human arm and then of the human eye.
    2.The goals of man-computer symbiosis are to bring the computing machine effectively into the formulative parts of technical problems and to bring computing machines effectively into processes of thinking that must go on in ‘real time’, time that moves too fast to permit using computers in conventional ways. Licklider believes that computer participation in human decision making would help to reduce the amount of time humans spend “thinking”. He used an example of how the majority of the time he spends “thinking” is really spent preparing to think by gathering materials and information etc. and computer participation would reduce that planning period. Licklider mentions that the first thing to face is that not all technical and scientific papers will be stored in computer memory and that books will always be around and relevant. He also said that a very important section of memory will be permanent: part indelible memory and part published memory. The computer will be able to write once into indelible memory, and then read back indefinitely, but the computer will not be able to erase indelible memory. A memory organization requirement is that information be retrievable both by name and by pattern and that it be accessible through procedure much faster than serial search. Input and output equipment are desk-surface display and control and computer-posted wall display.

  3. 1. The man-computer symbiosis is called “mechanically extended man”. In the man machine the human operator is able to supply the creativity, the direction, and the principle. What Lessing is saying is that is it a machine that is computer generated to help men. The mechanical parts of the systems were, first of the human arm, then of the human eye. These two parts helps with the mechanical work as well as the strategic, thinking work. In one sense of course, any man-made system is intended to help man, or men outside the system. “Mechanical extension” has given way to replacement of men, to automation, and the men who remain are there more to help than to be helped. (Licklider) What the author is telling us that men are not needed in this predicament and can be replaced by the mechanical extension.

    2. “Man computer symbiosis, electronic or chemical “machines” will outdo the human brain in most of the functions we now consider exclusively within its area.” (Licklider) The author explains that problems will be able to be solved by a machine better than the brain of a human. “One of the main aims of man-computer symbiosis is to bring the computing machine effectively into the formulative parts of technical problems.” If they could be introduced successfully into the thought process, the functions that can be performed by data-processing machines would improve or facilitate thinking and problem solving in an important way. The most successful way to make this happen is through a memory. The two types of memory that Licklider mentioned was indelible and published. Both types will help the computer procedure.

  4. 1. A man-computer symbiosis is “an expected development in cooperative interaction between men and electronic computers.” It involves two parts; one is letting computers do the thinking and calculations and two is enabling the user and the computer to work together to make decisions in complex situations. The difference between man-computer symbiosis and man-machine systems is that the man-computer relationship will be more effective and efficient. This represents wearable technology because new technology can be worn as an extension to the human body.
    2. The goals of man-computer symbiosis are to bring the computing machine effectively into the formulated parts of technical problems and to bring computing machines effectively into processes of thinking that must go on in ‘real time’, time that moves too fast to permit using computers in conventional ways. Licklider believes that computer participation in human decision making would help to reduce the amount of time humans spend “thinking.” A memory organization requirement is that information must be retrievable both by name and by pattern and that it is accessible through the procedure much faster than the serial search. Input and output equipment are desk-surface display and control and computer-posted wall display.

  5. 1. Man-computer symbiosis is a development in interaction between man and electronics. This is made up of two components, computers doing work on their own and men and computer being able to communicate in complex situations. The difference between this and man-machine systems is that man-computer symbiosis is much more complex and advanced comparably. Man-machine systems is man controlled and can only go as far as a human can allow it.
    2. The goal of man-computer symbiosis is to be able to effectively and efficiently solve problems using the trial and error system. According to Licklider, data processing machines would “improve of facilitate thinking and problem solving,” creating a need for computer participation. He states that books will always be around and that not all information will be stored in computers, but it should be retrievable both by name and by pattern. Input and output equipment are desk-surface displays and controls, computer posted wall-displays and automatic speech production and recognition.

  6. 1) According to Licklider, Man-computer symbiosis is “an expected development in cooperative interaction between men and electronic computers.” The two aims that man-computer symbiosis are 1)to let computers facilitate formulative thinking as they now facilitate the solution of formulated problems and 2) to enable men and computers to cooperate in making decisions and controlling complex situations without inflexible dependence on predetermined programs. The difference between man-computer symbiosis and man-machine systems is that machines that used to require human input, will now not need humans and they will be more proficient. Man-computer symbiosis is a subclass of man-machine systems.

    2) One of the main goals of man-computing symbiosis is to bring the computing machine effectively into the formulative parts of technical problems. Another goal is to bring computing machines effectively into processes of thinking that must go on in “real time,” time that moves too fast to permit using computers in conventional ways. Licklider said, if computer participation could be introduced effectively into the thought process, the functions that can be performed by data-processing machine would improve or facilitate thinking and problem solving in an important way. The memory hardware requirements according to Licklider are that books will never go away, and information must be stored there. Another requirement is part indelible memory and part published memory. The computer will be able to write once into indelible memory, and then read back indefinitely, but the computer will not be able to erase indelible memory. Published memory will be “read-only” memory. The memory organization requirements are information must be retrievable both by name and by pattern and that it be accessible through procedure much faster than serial search. This will fix the storage procedure. Input and output equipment include desk surface displays and controls, computer-posted wall displays, and automatic speech production and recognition.

  7. 1. According to Licklider man-computer symbiosis is a subclass of one of the many man-machine systems. Man-machine systems are human operators that are supplying the initiative, direction, integration, and criterion. This meant that only one organism was involved- man, the rest was there purely for man’s assistance. Differing from this is man-computer symbiosis is the connection and association of two organisms that are dissimilar. Essentially, this means that man and machine are both working together to provide intelligence. Mechanically-extended man has begun to replace men as a group with automation and technology. This leaves man that are left on the job remain there to help assist the technology. These ideas definitely exemplify wearable technology. Wearable technology allows humans to gain different experiences that they would never normally be able to experience without it. This allows wearable technology to become an extension of the human body.

    2. The main goals of man-computer symbiosis is to solve problems more effectively and efficiently. “One of the main aims of man-computer symbiosis
    is to bring the computing machine effectively into the formulative parts of
    technical problems,” (Licklider, 3). The other main goal is to bring computing machines into the formative parts of technical problems. According to Licklider, the need for computer participation in human decision making is introduced effectively into the though process. It can also improve thinking and problem solving. Some memory hardware requirements include published memory (thin-film), books, and indelible memory. Licklider states that memory is organized by information being retrievable by name and pattern. Input and output equipment is also referred to as displays and controls. This is a desk surface display and control computer-posted wall displays.

  8. According to Licklider’s reading, in the man-machine systems of the past, the human operator supplied the initiative, the direction, the integration, and the criterion. The mechanical parts of the systems were extensions, first of the human arm, then of the human eye. Man-Computer Symbiosis is “an expected development in cooperative interaction between men and electronic computers.” “Mechanically extended man” is basically referring to the fact that in man-machine systems of the past, “there was only one kind of organism-man-and the rest was there only to help him. Now these systems do everything. This resonates with wearable technology because as it states in the reading, new technology can be worn as an extension to the human body.

    The goal of man-computer symbiosis is primarily to solve preformulated problems or to process data according to predetermined procedures. According to Licklider, if computer participation could be introduced effectively into the thought process, the functions that can be performed by data-processing machines would improve or facilitate thinking and problem solving in an important way. The memory hardware requirements that Licklider talks about are books and indelible and published memory including thin film. The memory organization requirements are that information be retrievable both by name and by pattern and that it be accessible through procedure much faster than serial search. Input and output equipment are desk-surface display and control and computer-posted wall display.

  9. 1) The man-computer symbiosis is called “mechanically extended man”. In the man machine the human operator is able to supply the creativity, the direction, and the principle. What Lessing is saying is that is it a machine that is computer generated to help men. The mechanical parts of the systems were, first of the human arm, then of the human eye. These two parts helps with the mechanical work as well as the strategic, thinking work. In one sense of course, any man-made system is intended to help man, or men outside the system. “Mechanical extension” has given way to replacement of men, to automation, and the men who remain are there more to help than to be helped. What the author is telling us that men are not needed in this predicament and can be replaced by the mechanical extension.

    2) The goals of man-computer symbiosis are to solve problems more effectively and efficiently through guided trial-and-error procedure. “One of the man aims of man-computer symbiosis is to bring the computing machine effectively into the formative parts of technical problems.” The need for computer participation in human decision-making, according to Licklider, is that the data-processing machines would “improve or facilitate thinking and problem solving.” The memory hardware requirements are books and indelible and published memory including thin-film. The memory organization requirements are that information should be retrievable by name and pattern. The most effective way to do this is through trie memory. The input and output requirements are desk-surface displays and controls, computer posted wall-displays and automatic speech production and recognition.

  10. Q1. According to Licklider, man-computer symbiosis is an expected development in cooperative interaction between men and electronic computers. Licklider explains how man-computer symbiosis is a subclass of man-machine systems because there are many of these systems. At this point of time there are no man-computer symbioses. His paper is trying to present a concept that it will “foster the development of man-computer symbiosis analyzing some problems of interaction between men and computing machines,” (Licklider). Licklider’s hope in the future is to have human brains and computing machines work together. He is saying that the human brain can do the same work as a computer can do essentially. Mechanically Extended Man is all about men not doing some of the tasks they should be doing because of technology. The easy way out is definitely there with technology. “Mechanical extension” has given way to replacement of men, to automation, and the men who remain are there more to help than to be helped,” (Licklider). It states in the reading that electronic machines might “outdo” the human brain eventually because we are already very dependent on technology. In my view I do not think it will happen. We are so dependent on technology that I do not think it will ever change. It would certainly be nice if the same jobs can be accomplished between a man and computer but it is doubtful.

    Q2. The goals of man-computer symbiosis are to produce in a way that would cause man to think more efficiently by the use of technology. “If they could be introduced effectively into the thought process, the functions that can be performed by data-processing machines would improve or facilitate thinking and problem solving in an important way,” (Licklider). According to Licklider the need for computer participation in human decision making is the way that humans act with electronic machines. He wants to improve problem solving and critical thinking so that man knows how to think on his own. Licklider talks about many different hardware requirements. The first one he talks about is books. He explains how they are very important in the existence of man because they are human engineered. The second one is that an important part of memory will be permanent. The two types of memory are part inedible memory and part published memory. “The computer will be able to write once into indelible memory, and then read back indefinitely, but the computer will not be able to erase indelible memory,” (Licklider). The memory organization requirements are that information should be retrievable both by name and by pattern. It needs to be accessible through a very fast procedure because a lot of the problem of memory organization remains in the storage. Input and output equipment is viewed from the human operator’s point of view, displays and controls. The equipment is desk-surface display and control and computer-posted wall display. The first one explains how it is important for man and the computer to do their work on the same surface such as draw graphs and pictures. The second one explains that some men share responsibility for controlling vehicles whose behaviors interact.

  11. 1. Man-computer symbiosis is the interaction between men and electronic computers and is a sub class of man-machine systems, which were created to help men outside the system by using an operator. Mechanically extended man involves systems that started out to be fully automatic but were not able to do so. The men who remain are there to help rather than be helped. Basically, computers will pick up men’s slack and men will pick up computers’ slack because they both have some qualities that the opposite does not posses. In my opinion, the first wearable technology example that comes into my mind is a watch. The watch is there to express what time it is, but it is up to you to remember what you should be doing at which time.

    2. The goals of man-computer symbiosis are to bring the computing machine effectively into the formulative parts of the technical problems. Similarly, it aims to bring computing machines effectively into processes of thinking that must go on in “real time”, times that moves too fast to permit using computers in conventional ways. The need for computer participation in human decision making is that it would improve or facilitate thinking and problem solving in an important way, especially when it comes to activities that were essentially clerical or mechanical such as: searching, calculating, plotting, transforming, or determining the logical or dynamic consequences of a set of assumptions or hypotheses. The first memory hardware requirement is to know that all of the technical and scientific papers cannot be stored in the computer memory. Only the parts that can be summarized well and the quantitative parts should be put in there. Everything else can be put into books. Two memories are important: indelible and published. The computer won’t be able to erase indelible memory. Published memory will be the reading memory. Memory organization requirements suggest that information should be able to be retrieved by name and by pattern. “Trie memory” was created to help the retrievable process be more efficient and its storage structure resembles a tree. Input and output equipment are the least advanced. They are the displays and controls.

  12. 1. Man-computer symbiosis is “an expected development in cooperative inter- action between men and electronic computers.” It will involve very close coupling between the human and the electronic members of the partner- ship. In Man-Machine systems the man operating the machine is supposed to be able to put all of the creativity and work in to the machine himself. Mechanically extended man has given way to replacement of men. The computers pick up man’s slack.Whatever man doesn’t do the computer will do for them. In my opinion this can be good and bad. It can be good to get work done however it makes humans lazy. Now a days humans rely on smart phones for almost everything.

    2. The goals of man-computer symbiosis are to solve preformulated prob- lems or to process data according to predetermined procedures. It basically is trying to bring computer processes into human thinking. The need for computer participation in human thinking is that data-processing machines would improve or facilitate thinking and problem solving in an important way. The first memory hardware requirements Licklider talks about is books and how important they are for human thinking. He wants people to know that all scientific papers can not be stored into the computer only quantitative summaries should be. All of the rest of it can be put into books. He basically wants computers not to completely influence man’s thinking he wants man to be able to do both, think on his own and use the computer. This he feels is how people will be most successful. The memory organization requirements are that everything should be retrievable by name and by pattern. It needs to be accessible in a quick manner. Input and output equipment are displays and controls, computer posted wall-displays and automatic speech production and recognition.

  13. 1. Man computer symbiosis is the expected development in the interaction of men and electronic computers. Man machines are different because they are less efficient and effective than Man computer symbiosis because they require human input. Mechanically extended man is the parts of the computer that man can not provide. This resonates in my view with wearable technology because the user could apply the technology to themselves to receive a different more rewarding experience.

    2. The goals of Man computer symbiosis are to solve problems efficiently and effectively through the use of trial and error procedures. According to Licklinder ” The need for computer participation in human decision-making, according to Licklider, is that the data-processing machines would “improve or facilitate thinking and problem solving.” The memory hardware requirements include books, indelible, and thin film. The memory organization requirements are information that should be retrieved by name and pattern. Input and output equipment include desk-surface display, control, and computer-posted wall display.

  14. 1. Man computer symbiosis is an expected development in cooperative interaction between men and electronic computers.This is made up of two components, computers doing work on their own and men and computer being able to communicate in complex situations.The first major difference is when computers regulate formulative thinking as they now facilitate the solution of formulated problems. It also enables men and computers to cooperate in making decisions and controlling complex situations without inflexible dependence on predetermined programs.

    2.The goal of man-computer symbiosis is to be able to effectively and efficiently solve problems using the trial and error system. Licklider said “if computer participation could be introduced effectively into the thought process, the functions that can be performed by data-processing machines would improve or facilitate thinking and problem solving in an important way.” Different hardware requirements include films,books, newspapers etc. Memory organization includes retrievals by names and patterns. Input and output equipment are controls and displays, computer posted wall-displays and automatic speech recognition and production.

  15. 1. Man-computer symbiosis can be defined as a development of interaction between man and electronics. This is made up of two components, computers doing work on their own and men and computer being able to communicate in complex situations. The difference between this and man-machine systems is that man-computer symbiosis is much more complex and advanced when being compared. Man-machine systems are controlled by man and can only go as far as humans allow them.

    2. According to Licklider the goal of man-computer symbiosis is to be able to efficiently and effectively solve problems using the trial and error. According to Licklider, data processing machines would “improve of facilitate thinking and problem solving,” creating a need for computer participation. He says that books will always be around and that not all information will be stored in computers, but it should be retrievable by both name and by pattern. Input and output equipment are desk-surface displays and controls, computer posted wall-displays and automatic speech production and recognition.

  16. Q.1.: According to Licklider, man-computer symbiosis is the expected development in the interaction of men and electronic computers. Man-computer symbiosis is different from man-machine systems because it is a subclass of man-machine systems because there are many of these systems. Mechanically extended man is a man-machine system where the human operator supplied the initiative, the direction, the integration, and the criterion. In my view, this resonates well with wearable technology.

    Q.2. According to Licklider, the goals of man-computer symbiosis are to solve problems efficiently and effectively through the use of trial and error procedures. The need for computer participation in human decision making is that the data-processing machines would “improve or facilitate thinking and problem solving.”
    The memory hardware requirements and the memory organization requirement is that information must be retrievable both by name and by pattern. Input and output equipment is desk-surface display, control, and computer-posted wall display.

  17. Greg Schneider

    Q1: According to Licklider, man-computer symbiosis is an expected development in cooperative interaction between men and electronic computers. Man-machines are different in the fact that a human operator supplied the initiative, the direction, the integration, and the criterion. This resonates wearable technology because it states new technology can be worn as an extension to the human body, like glasses or a watch.

    Q2: The main goals for man-computer symbiosis
    is to bring the computing machine effectively into the formulative parts of
    technical problems. According to Licklider, data-processing machines would improve or facilitate thinking and problem solving.

  18. 1. Man-computer symbiosis is the development or the relationship between a person and their computer. This is a close relationship that allows computers “think” and find a solution to generated problems. This also, aims to have computers work together with society to create a partnership with goals and other premeditated criteria. Examples, of this type of symbiosis can be seen in today’s world with things such as the google glasses, or Samsung watches. There is a stigma and expectation for these technologies to comply with their functionality. I think that this resonates with wearable technology in a sense, you buy for example, the google glasses and as a consumer you have the expectations of how it is supposed to function; but you cannot expect it to be a flawless transaction one hundred percent of the time.
    2. The goals of the symbiosis are for technology to work more effectively. Some of the hardware requirements include information processing equipment, transforming data, and the ability to carry out routinazable operations. Input and output equipment includes things such as desk displays and speech recognition. This can be seen within today’s technology such as Siri from Apple, and the vast array of desk options from cisco.

  19. 1. The man-computer symbiosis is the mixing of human brains and a computing machine. The computer does the thinking but it allows the user to be involved to assist the machine. This makes for an easier process to a difficult decision making situation. The man-computer symbiosis is a lot more complex and advanced then the man-machine systems. The mechanically extended man is referring to the parts of the machine that man does not have. Wearable technology relates to this because with these technological advancements we are able to achieve more than before.
    2. The goals of man-computer symbiosis are to be more efficient and effective. To me this reminds me of the saying two brains are better than one. Bringing the computer into problem solving situations allows for their to be improvement in problem solving. As for memory hardware requirements Licklider states that it should include published memory, books, and indelible memory. Input and output are used for displays and controls.

  20. 1.) Man-computer symbiosis is a development/ combination of human intellect and computation devices, an extension of man if you will, that lets the computer do the heavy lifting while the human intellect will simplify requests and help man. It is different from man-machine systems because of this efficiency and the fact that man-computer is more of a combination of computer and man whereas mechanically extended man is more human based. Some of these mechanical parts are wearable technology because they are extensions of the body such as the arm.
    2.) The goal of the man-computer symbiosis is to simplify computing and human thinking, and eliminate failures when problem solving. Licklider believes these machines will improve and help decision making. Some of the different requirements, one of which being that memory is important to the device, memory it will not be able to erase. It also needs to access this information quickly. It will also need to access this memory by name and pattern. Input and output refer to desk display and control operating systems and/or computer posted wall displays.

  21. Latrice Ginwright

    1. The article states that, “Man-computer symbiosis is a subclass of man-machine systems. According to Licklider, Man –computer symbiosis is “an expected development in cooperative interaction between men and electronic computers. There are two parts to this concept. One is letting the computers do the thinking where two is enabling the user and have the computer work together to make the complex decisions. This concept is the wearable technology that can be worn as an extension to the human body.

    2.The main goal is to allow the man computer symbiosis to solve problems effectively and efficiently. The other main goal is bringing the computer machines into formative parts of technical problems. According to Licklider, he states that memory is organized by information that is retrieved. The input and output equipment is referred to as desk surface display and controls.

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