History of the Internet

In “A brief history of the Internet,” Tim Berners-Lee lays out the “Initial Internetting Concepts” that laid the foundations for the world wide web we are so familiar with today. In brief, clearly explain what the following ideas mean: (i) open architecture networking with respect to packet switching? (ii) what is the full form for TCP/IP? (iii) What were the four ground rules critical to Kahn’s early thinking? (iv) in the history of the future, what does Internet refer to? If the internet has not finished changing, what is its future look like? What is the most pressing question for the future? Share your comments as a response to this post.

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10 responses to “History of the Internet

  1. (i). Open architecture networking means that the choice of network was not limited to a particular network architecture, but rather could be chosen freely from any provider and it is packet switching that allows this to occur. Before that there was only circuit switching in which the provider must have been connected to the network. Packet switching allows for more choices in terms of networks.
    (ii). TCP/IP is the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol.
    (iii). The four ground rules from Kahn are :
    1. “Each distinct network would have to stand on its own and no internal changes could be required to any such network to connect it to the Internet.”
    2. “Communications would be on a best effort basis. If a packet didn’t make it to the final destination, it would shortly be retransmitted from the source.”
    3. “Black boxes would be used to connect the networks; these would later be called gateways and routers. There would be no information retained by the gateways about the individual flows of packets passing through them, thereby keeping them simple and avoiding complicated adaptation and recovery from various failure modes.”
    4. “There would be no global control at the operations level.”
    (iv).
    1. In the history of the future, the Internet refers to “the global information system that — (i) is logically linked together by a globally unique address space based on the Internet Protocol (IP) or its subsequent extensions/follow-ons; (ii) is able to support communications using the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) suite or its subsequent extensions/follow-ons, and/or other IP-compatible protocols; and (iii) provides, uses or makes accessible, either publicly or privately, high level services layered on the communications and related infrastructure described herein.”
    2. In terms of the future of the Internet since it has not finished changing. The future currently has the plans of having new forms of service as well as new applications which will continue to develop the Internet. It will continue to be a circle of evolution.
    3. The most pressing question for the future is how the process of change and evolution of technology is managed.

  2. Open architecture networking allows for individual networks to be designed and structured according to their own specific needs. Packet switching is an effective method of data transfer with the use of open architecture, as individual data packets can be broken up and processed by each network in that network’s most efficient way.
    TCP stands for Transmission Control Protocol. This protocol dictates how data is transferred over networks utilizing the Internet. IP, or Internet Protocol, controls how devices connect to the Internet to retrieve data.
    Kahn’s early thinking relied on four rules, the first of which was that each distinct network stood on its own and its ability to connect to the Internet would not rely on internal changes. The next rule was that packets that did not make it to their destination would be retransmitted from the source. The third rule was that black boxes, which would later become routers and gateways, would connect networks to one another. These black boxes would only transmit, not store, data between networks. Kahn’s last ground rule was that no global control would be exerted at an operational level.
    The Internet, as defined in 1995 by the Federal Networking council, refers to a global information system that is linked by a unique address space relying on the Internet Protocol or other future extensions, can support communications using TCP/IP or future extensions, and provides public or private high level services that are layered on the infrastructure of the Internet. The writers of the article believe that the Internet has not finished changing and will continue to evolve along with the computer industry. They anticipate that new applications utilizing the Internet will be developed, and the Internet will have to change to support new technologies that have different characteristics and requirements. The most pressing question regarding the Internet’s future is the management of the process of change. As the Internet has grown, so has the number of people involved and who depend on its structure. Economic concerns may hinder future growth and there may be difficulties developing social structures to guide the development of the Internet.

  3. i) open architecture networking is saying that the choice of network is not confined to any one network architecture. It is the free choice that one can make between any wide variety of providers, and at the end of the day packet switching is what makes this possible.

    ii) IP is Internet Protocol. This is what regulates how devices are able to connect to the internet in order to receive and retrieve data. TCP is Transmission Control Protocol. This is what controls how data is moved between networks.

    iii) Kahn’s Four Rules are:

    1. “Each distinct network would have to stand on its own and no internal changes could be required to any such network to connect it to the internet.”
    2. “Communications would be on a best effort basis. If a packet didn’t make it to the final destination, it would shortly be retransmitted from the source.”
    3. “Black boxes would be used to connect the networks; these would later be called gateways and routers. There would be no information retained by the gateways about the individual flows of packets passing through them, thereby keeping them simple and avoiding complicated adaptation and recovery from various failure modes.”
    4. “There would be no global control at the operations level.”

    iv) The Internet has been defined as a system of global information which is linked by unique address space relying on the Internet Protocol (IP) or other future extensions. This also provides both private AND public services built into the Internet’s foundation. Many believe that the Internet is in a continuous state of change and will continue to do so long into the future. This evolution is projected to mirror technological advancements and other tech innovations and inventions. Basically, as new tech and applications are being invented, the internet will be forced to change in order to keep up with all of the advances being made. The main things constricting the potential that the Internet has to grow are the economy and a myriad of social concerns. There isn’t a set of guidelines on how the internet is expected to grow, but it will more than likely continue to do so as it has for the last few decades.

  4. (i) Open architecture networking refers to how a provider can freely select any individual network technology and make it interwork with other networks. It was designed to create a more efficient replacement (packet switching) for circuit switching.
    (ii) TCP stands for Transmission Control Protocol, and OP stands for Internet Protocol.
    (iii) The four ground rules critical to Kahn’s early thinking were:
    1. Each network would have to stand on its own and no internal changes. could be required to any such network for it to have to connect to the Internet
    2. If a packet didn’t make it to the final destination, it would be retransmitted from the source.
    3. Black boxes (gateways and routers) would be used to connect these networks. These gateways would not retain any of the information in or about the packets that passed through them.
    4. No global control at the operations level.
    (iv) Internet refers to the global information system that is logically linked together by a globally unique address space based on the IP or its subsequent extensions/follow-ons, able to link support communications using the TCP/IP suite or its subsequent extensions/follow-ons and/or other IP-compatible protocols, and provides, uses or makes accessible, either publicly or privately, high level services layered on the communications and related infrastructure described herein. The future of the internet lies in nomadic computing and communications (Internet watch! Internet glasses!). The most pressing concern for the the future is the need for a single direction of advancement.

  5. i) Open architecture networking allows any individual networks to be selected freely by a provider and made to work with the other networks. This method of switching and interconnection of networks is made possible by pack-switching. (ii) TCP/IP stands for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. (iii) The four ground rules to Kahn’s early thinking are 1 – each distinct network would stand on its own and no internal changes could be required to to connect it to the Internet. 2-Packets that did not make it to their destination would be retransmitted to the source. 3 – Simple black boxes (gateways and routers) would be used to connect the networks. 4- No global control at the operations level. (iv) In the history of the future the internet refers to the global information system that is linked together by an Internet Protocol, can support communication using TCP/IP, and provides high level services. The availability of the internet and the powerful, affordable, and widely used devices are making new applications possible. For example, internet television or internet telephone will stem from these new applications. The most pressing question for the future is how the process of this undeniable change and evolution that is bound to occur will be managed.

  6. i.) Open architecture as it relates to the internet has to do with free access and a safety net feature. With computers being connected in a net-like shape rather than one with a distinct center it allows the network to continue functioning even if one part fails. If one computer shuts down, it will only affect itself and not cause a blackout-like situation across a variety of computers. The other function it serves is for packet-switching. Packet-switching is how a message is transmitted. Instead of traveling as a whole, it’s broken down into smaller pieces. The open-architecture allows it to find the closest router for the individual piece, thus delivering the message faster.
    ii.)TCP/IP stands for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. It gives devices unique identities so they are distinguishable.
    iii.)1. “Each distinct network would have to stand on its own and no internal changes could be required to any such network to connect it to the Internet.”
    2. “Communications would be on a best effort basis. If a packet didn’t make it to the final destination, it would shortly be retransmitted from the source.”
    3. “Black boxes would be used to connect the networks; these would later be called gateways and routers.
    4. “There would be no global control at the operations level.”
    iv.) “Internet” is defined as a global information system that, links together devices based on IP addresses, supports communication using TCP/IP, and provides publicly accessible services.

  7. i) Open architecture networking refers to the ability of any network to access or connect to any other network, which led to the Internetworking Architecture. The open structure serves a packet switching method of information transfer particularly well because one computer is able to connect to many routers, and sent various packets through those different routers in order to deliver each packet to the destination on the fastest pathway possible.
    ii) The full form of TCP/IP is Tranmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol, which is more communication based than previous protocol forms.
    iii) The four ground rules to Kahn’s early thinking were
    1. Each network is independent and able to connect to the internet without changes being made to it.
    2. “Best effort”communication occurs, meaning that a packet will be resent if it is lost in transit and fails to reach its destination.
    3. Networks are connected by black boxes (later gateways or routers) that do not store information but simply pass it on.
    4. There is no global operational control.
    iv) In the History of the Future, the Internet is a global system of information that is linked by IP addresses, supports communication via TCP/IP, and utilizes or contributes to “high level service” on the aforementioned systems. The authors mention that the newest aspect of the changing internet in the time they are writing is audio and video streaming, a now commonplace concept. I could see the internet further becoming embedded in our daily connections, as is the case with Snapchat stories sharing our lives with others minute to minute, but perhaps something even more physically connected to our bodies that will update others without us even having to tell it to do so. The most pressing question for the future is in regards to how the management of technological evolution will take place, rather than more simply how technology will evolve.

  8. First, I want to start by saying that I really learned a lot from this article. I had no idea that the Internet was originally APARNET and that its evolution was so gradual. Judging from this reading, it was quite an ongoing process all the way from J.C.R Licklider discussing a “galactic network” in 1962 to Tim Burnes-Lee forming the World Wide Web in 1989. I did not know that email was its own invention in and of itself. I also did not know that an open network was the reason for the internet’s ultimate success.

    Needless to say, I was very enlightened and impressed with humanity after this reading. I have a lot of hope for the future but also am a bit nervous for what it can potentially bring. As the article states “If the internet stumbles, it will not be because we lack for technology, vision, or motivation. It will be because we cannot set a direction and march collectively into the future.” I fully believe we have the potential as mentioned, but deciding on the internet’s next step is imperative to its success going foward.

  9. (i) open architecture networking is lets networks interact with other networks without any restraint or limits. Packet switching makes this interconnection between different networks possible and more efficient.
    (ii) The full form for TCP is Transmission Control Protocol and the full form for IP is Internet Protocol.
    (iii) The four ground rules critical to Kahn’s early thinking:
    -“Each distinct network would have to stand on its own and no internal changes could be required to any such network to connect it to the Internet.”
    -“Communications would be on a best effort basis. If a packet didn’t make it to the final destination, it would shortly be retransmitted from the source.”
    -“Black boxes would be used to connect the networks; these would later be called gateways and routers. There would be no information retained by the gateways about the individual flows of packets passing through them, thereby keeping them simple and avoiding complicated adaptation and recovery from various failure modes.”
    -“There would be no global control at the operations level.”
    (iv) The internet is headed in a direction that will allow it continue to evolve and grow in its sharing and network abilities. The future of the internet will go hand-in-hand with all of the technological advances of our future as well because it will allow technology to connect with more things in our everyday lives The single most pressing question for the future is how all of these advancements will affect society and if society will ever be satisfied and reach an end result with the internet/technology.

  10. forward*

    (i) An open architecture network means that the choice of network is not limited to a particular network architecture, but instead can be freely selected from any provider and packet switching permits this to happen. Prior to this there was only circuit switching, in which the provider must be connected to the network. Packet switching allows for more choices in terms of networks to provide better service
    (ii) TCP/IP stand for Transmission Control Protocol and Internet protocol.
    (iii) Kahns four ground rules are consist of:
    1. “Each distinct network would have to stand on its own and no internal changes could be required to any such network to connect it to the Internet.”
    2. “Communications would be on a best effort basis. If a packet didn’t make it to the final destination, it would shortly be retransmitted from the source.”
    3. “Black boxes would be used to connect the networks; these would later be called gateways and routers. There would be no information retained by the gateways about the individual flows of packets passing through them, thereby keeping them simple and avoiding complicated adaptation and recovery from various failure modes.”
    4. “There would be no global control at the operations level.”
    (iv) The Internet, as defined in 1995 by the Federal Networking council, refers to a global information system that is linked by a unique address space relying on the Internet Protocol or other future extensions, can support communications using TCP/IP or future extensions, and provides public or private high level services that are layered on the infrastructure of the Internet. The author of this article believes that the Internet has not finished changing and will continue to evolve along with the computer industry. They anticipate the development of new applications that utilizing the Internet and that the Internet will have to change/grow to support new technologies that have different characteristics and requirements. The most pressing question regarding the Internet’s future is the management of the process of change.
    -Further answer to this question is located in my previous post.

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