Code, Regulation, and Online Communities

(Ch. 6, Lessig reading for March 3):

In cyberspaces, Lessig argues that cyberspace is about different functionalities that afford variety in the ways we do things. It is not necessarily a “brave new world, in the sense of being fundamentally different. From your experiences in Second Life, you can probably understand (agree or disagree) whether there is something unique about interactions in these spaces and how they are regulated.

So, Q. 1: How does Lessig argue that life in cyberspace is regulated? How is code a regulator? (p. 115 onward)–explain using DRM systems as an example and DMCA (the Digital Millennium Copyright Act–p. 117).

Q. 2.: Based on your experiences online, what does virtual community mean to you? Give examples of cyber spaces and cyber places where you have been, and explain what makes them a place (p. 89)? Similarly, in what sense does space have values (p. 85–86)? What types of people did early Net enable? What does power and control have to do with it?

Q. 3. How does Lessig define and describe Second Life (p. 105)? Compare and contrast with your own experiences and try your hand at your own definition of “virtual world.”

Q. 4. How is cyberspace different from the Internet (p. 111)?  What does architecture have to do with it (p. 113)?

 

21 responses to “Code, Regulation, and Online Communities

  1. 1. Lessig said “life in cyberspace is regulated primarily through the code of cyberspace. Code makes it easy to know who did what so that penalties can be visited upon those who behaved badly. Code is a regulator in cyberspace because it defines the terms upon which cyberspace is offered. And those who set those terms increasingly recognize the code as a means to achieving the behaviors that benefit them the best.” This basically means that there is now code that can be written to make sure property and ideas are not stolen, even though the internet, computer, and simple copy and paste buttons make it so easy to steal other people’s thoughts and claim them as your own. DRM is “digital rights management” which adds code to digital content that disables the ability for users to copy or distribute that content. The DMCA protects intellectual property that is located in cyberspace. Both the DRM and DMCA work together to prevent plagiarism. Just as there are physical patents on products, these new regulations basically put “patents” on information that is stored in cyberspace.

    2. In my opinion, a virtual community is a place where people create a username, avatar or alter persona to act as themselves in the virtual world, whether that is place is set up as a real world, an online forum, or a blog. Examples of cyber places include Second Life, WordPress, The Sims, and different video games. These can be categorized as “places” because they have a physical presence in cyberspace through software, a URL or an Internet connection. Space has values such as choice because in that space you can choose to be whoever you want to be. Lessing uses the example of a baseball fan in the summer and an opera fan in the winter. In each separate space, the same physical person can be two different people depending on the space. The early Net enabled people to take advantage of the amount of different personalities they could create based on regulation. Power and control play a factor in the early Net because people could take advantage of 5 different personalities, such as in Lessig’s example of AOL. The user has the power and control to portray as many different online characters as they wanted to due to power and control of the user.

    3. Lessig defines and describes Second Life as “a 3-D virtual world entirely built and owned by its residents.” He describes it as a virtual world because of the sense that objects and people are rendered by computers. Because of my experiences with Second Life, I think this definition is broad but accurate. In my own words, I would describe a virtual world as a place where avatars interact with other avatars but are controlled by humans. I think there is no specific definition for a virtual world because I think there are different types of virtual worlds, such as places like Second Life or Sims and then blogs and online forums.

    4. Cyberspace is different from the Internet because of architecture only. Cyberspace lives in the Internet and they work together. I think that the Internet allows one person to get to cyberspace. The Internet is simply a means for getting from one place to another. The Internet uses TCP/IP protocols where applications can be built, such as Second Life and create cyberspace.

  2. 1. Lessing argues that life in cyberspace is regulated by, “technology constitutes the environment of the space, and it will give us a much wider range of control over how interactions work in that space than in real space. (Lessing) A code is a regulator because he explains how problems can be there and be taken away. The point of this is to make the worlds different. DRM technologies add code to digital content that disables the simple ability to copy or distribute that content. (Lessing) “In the Digital Millennium Copyright Act, Congress banned the creation and distribution of technologies “produced for the purpose of circumventing a technological measure that effectively controls access” to a copyrighted work.” (Lessing) An example of this would be the DVD Copy Association.

    2. From my personal experience virtual community means to me that people from all over the world are able to talk, share ideas, and how you feel through the internet or any type of technological device. I experienced a cyber-place when I was in a chat room and we had to discuss a main topic. This is considered a cyber-place because it is a place where people could say what they wanted. Lessing states that space has values, “They manifest these values through the practices or lives that they enable or disable. The early Net enables newbies who have just surfed the net or sent/received an email. The power of this is that users can do whatever they want online with minimum limitation.

    3. Lessing defines Second Life as a 3D world entirely built and owned by its residents. With my own experiences I would have to agree with Lessing. In second life you control whatever you want to do. You build a foundation that you’re comfortable with and live from there. From my understanding of a virtual community in it meaning that people from around the world can talk, share ideas, and feeling through the internet is what we do in second life.

    4. Lessing describes the internet and cyberspace to be different because the internet has architectural features that embed in certain values. The internet is a global communication network linking other computer networks together from around the world and also both hardware and software. Cyberspace can include the entire content of the internet as well as objects created virtually. Architecture is involved because which architecture we encourage is a choice about which policy we encourage. (Lessing)

  3. 1. To quote Lessig: “Life in cyberspace is regulated primarily through the code of cyberspace. Code makes it easy to know who did what so that penalties can be visited upon those who behaved badly. Code is a regulator in cyberspace because it defines the terms upon which cyberspace is offered. And those who set those terms increasingly recognize the code as a means to achieving the behaviors that benefit them the best.” This means that the codes are given to everyone who is on the Internet and those codes can be searched to discover who did and who said what. DRM stands for digital rights management, which adds code to digital content that disables the ability for users to copy or distribute that content. The DMCA is there to protect individual’s intellectual property that is located in cyberspace and can be stolen by others in cyberspace.
    2. Virtual reality means to me that real humans are living their lives on the Internet. I have played a computer game called World of Warcraft which s the number one rated virtual video game ever made. People create characters and level up and communicate with millions of other users. I have been in made up cities that sell things that are also sold in real space. Such as houses and food. Space has values on the Internet because people have put their time and money into their virtual lives and therefore have value in them. The early Net gave people the opportunity create any amount of different personalities they could create based on regulation.
    3. “A 3-D virtual world entirely built and owned by its residents,” is what Lessig said. He describes it as a virtual world because of the sense that objects and people are rendered by computers. I agree with Lessig, but from my experiences I believe virtual reality is more complex with people physically sitting at a computer all day everyday and playing their lives through this game.
    4. Cyberspace and the Internet are only different because of one aspect: architecture. The Internet is a global communicating network used worldwide by networking computers together from all over the world. Cyberspace can include the entire content of the Internet as well as virtual reality. Lessig said that architecture is involved because which architecture we encourage is a choice about which policy we encourage.

  4. 1. According to Lessig, “life in cyberspace is regulated primarily through the code of cyberspace.” Currently, there is code that can be written to protect a person’s “property” online, allowing this property to not be stolen. DRM is digital rights management witch disables the ability to copy specific content. The DMCA protects a person’s property that is located in cyberspace and the DRM and DMCA work together to protect this property from theft.
    2. A virtual community, in my opinion, is where someone creates a username or avatar and uses it to meet others and interact with people with similar interests. A Cyber place I have been is different locations on Second Life, and though these places may not be a physical place in on the planet, they are a place in cyberspace, which is its own world. The net allowed people to take control of who their different personalities could become. Power and control play a factor in the early net because people could take advantage of having multiple personalities and this power allowed the user to be who they wanted to be.
    3. Lessig defines Second Life as “a 3-D virtual world entirely built and owned by its residents.” It is a virtual world because it is created by computers. I believe this is an accurate description after my experience with Second Life. I would describe a virtual world as a place where people become who they want and interact with others, knowing that it may not be who the person appears to be. There are many options for virtual worlds though, and creating an avatar is not the only way to be involved. Any situation where you are interacting or communicating with others online or through gaming could be a virtual world.
    4. The only difference between the Internet and cyberspace is architecture. Architecture is the basis of the internet and how people use the internet to get to cyberspace and virtual worlds.

  5. 1. Lessig states that, “life in cyberspace is regulated primarily through the code of cyberspace. Code makes it easy to know who did what so that penalties can be visited upon those who behaved badly. Code is a regulator in cyberspace because it defines the terms upon which cyberspace is offered. And those who set those terms increasingly recognize the code as a means to achieving the behaviors that benefit them the best.” This basically means that codes are available for anyone. Any user has the ability to see who said or did what in cyberspace. DRM (digital rights management) adds code to digital content to disable users from copying and distributing copy-written content. The DMCA works together with the DRM to prevent and deter people from stealing/plagiarizing another persons original material. The DMCA protects users intellectual property located in cyberspace.

    2. In my opinion virtual communities are a place where people are able to share their differing ideas freely and openly in an environment with people from all over the world in many different locations. To me virtual communities can bring people together to share ideas. Virtual communities also give users to have an online presence as themselves or as an avatar, someone that they can make the complete opposite of their real life self, and escape from reality. I would use Second Life as an example for virtual communities. In my experience I had the ability to travel all over the world as a “different version of myself” and talk to people from several different countries. Much like the real world cyberspace too has values and regulations. Space value is manifested through practices and lives they enable or display. Cyberspace enables people to communicate who were disabled in real space life. There are three main categories, the blind, deaf, and “ugly”. These are three conditions which would inhibit standard forms of communication that the web disables.

    3. Lessig describes Second Life as a “3D virtual world entirely built and owned by its residents.” He states that is a virtual world in terms that objects and people are rendered by computers. I agree with Lessig on these statements. Through Second Life my avatar had the ability to do whatever I wanted in the virtual land of Second Life. I was able to move from place to place without hesitation, I was able to chat and communication, and I was even able to fly. This fits in with my definition of a virtual world because people have the ability to be whoever they want to be on Second Life.

    4. The differing factor between cyberspace and the internet is architecture. The internet is a global communication network. Cyberspace gives users the ability to entire a different realm of reality with anything, including objects that are designed through the internet.

  6. Lessig states that congress regulates cyberspace with The Audio Home Recording Act which both taxed blank tapes slightly and regulated the code of digital reproduction technologies directly. The Act requires producers of digital recording devises to install a chip in their systems that implements a code-based system to monitor the copies of any copy made on that machine. “Digital rights management” also known as DRM adds code to digital content that disables the simple ability to copy or distribute the content. In the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA), Congress banned the creation and distribution of technologies “produced for the purpose of circumventing a technological measure that effectively controls access” to a copyrighted work, or “primarily designed or produced for the purpose of circumventing protection afforded by a technological measure that effectively protects a right of a copyright owner.

    When thinking of a virtual community, the first thing that comes to mind is Second Life. Second Life is a computer software program that is a virtual reality. You have avatars that can go anywhere in this virtual reality and basically do anything. Another virtual community I think of is Sims. In this game you are able to get married, start families, you can even build houses. All of the above mentioned aspects make this a place. These two games are considered a space because there are places where people can gather, places where they can leaflet, etc. Early Net enabled the kind of people that are early adopters of technology. This has given them power and control in these alternate realms.

    Lessig noted a few things about Second Life. He noticed that women spoke more in this space than they did in class. He also noticed that helpers quickly developed and differentiated from those who received their help. If I had to give my own definition of virtual world I would say it is an alternate realm you can visit where the possibilities are endless.

    The example Lessig gives on the differences between the Internet and Cyberspace is the end-to-end principle. It is a design philosophy about how networks should be built. It counsels that a network should be kept as simple as possible and that the intelligence required in a network be vested in the edge, or ends of a network, at least as far as that’s possible. Architecture matters greatly in this department. In some places Lessig notes there is a community or a set of norms that are self-enforcing. In other places where community is not fully self-enforcing, norms are supplemented by rules imposed either through code or by the relevant sovereign.

  7. 1. Lessig argues that the Audio Home Recording Act that taxed blank tapes slightly and regulated the code of digital reproduction technologies directly regulates life in cyberspace. DRM technology permits songs to be copied to a limited number of machines, but it restricts the ability to copy those songs broadly. This technology modifies or qualifies the “copy” function that is produced through code.

    2. Based on my experience online a virtual community is a group of people that have a connection over a certain site. An example of cyber space would be Second Life because it is a virtual world that people go to and interact with other users. Space has values in that you are able to make choices. Choices mean that differently constituted space enable and disable differently. Users are able to choose how you want to represent yourself. Early Net enabled classes of people who were disabled in real-space life. This gives these people the chance to control their lives and have power over who they are, how they act, and what they look like.

    3. Lessig defines and describes Second Life as a #-D virtual world entirely built and owned by its residents. Objects and people on Second Life are rendered by computers. In my experiences on Second Life this definition is accurate. I would describe a virtual world as one that people can create their own identity and live a virtual version of real life.

    4. Cyberspace is different from the Internet because of architecture. The Internet embodied the principle of end-to-end, which is a design philosophy, by keeping the functionality of TCP/IP focused narrowly on the single function best-efforts delivery of packets of data. Cyberspace is a subspace that is embodied by the Internet.

  8. 1) According to Lessig, “life in cyberspace is regulated primarily through the code of cyberspace.” Currently, there is code that can be written to protect a person’s “property” online, allowing this property to not be stolen. DRM is digital rights management witch disables the ability to copy specific content. The DMCA protects a person’s property that is located in cyberspace and the DRM and DMCA work together to protect this property from theft.

    2) Based on my experience online a virtual community is a group of people that have a connection over a certain site. An example of cyber space would be Second Life because it is a virtual world that people go to and interact with other users. Space has values in that you are able to make choices. Choices mean that differently constituted space enable and disable differently. Users are able to choose how you want to represent yourself. Early Net enabled classes of people who were disabled in real-space life. This gives these people the chance to control their lives and have power over who they are, how they act, and what they look like.

    3) “A 3-D virtual world entirely built and owned by its residents,” is what Lessig said. He describes it as a virtual world because of the sense that objects and people are rendered by computers. I agree with Lessig, but from my experiences I believe virtual reality is more complex with people physically sitting at a computer all day everyday and playing their lives through this game.

    4) The differing factor between cyberspace and the internet is architecture. The internet is a global communication network. Cyberspace gives users the ability to entire a different realm of reality with anything, including objects that are designed through the internet.

  9. Q1. Lessig argues that life in cyberspace is regulated by codes. He did his research on a range of cyberspaces to make sure what exactly the elements of regulation are within each one. A very important element to cyberspace being regulated is code. He explains code embeds value in cyberspace but also the Internet. In the text, it stated that the code “enables, or not, certain control,” (Lessig). It is labeled as a tool of control which is saying it controls to the end of however the coding is done. Code is a regulator because it controls the environment to see what behavior is acceptable and eliminates misbehavior. DRM fits right in to cyberspace being regulated because it stands for “digital rights management.” This adds code to digital content that disables the ability to copy or distribute it to anyone. An example from the text was if you purchased a song from Apple’s iTunes. The songs are protected by their DRM technology “fairplay.” This is stating that the technology is preventing the user from copying the content to numerous amounts of machines. “It is a classic example of code being deployed to restore control over something that (different) code had disabled,” (Lessig). The Digital Millennium Copyright Act states that one cannot distribute technologies of copyrighted work because it would affect that copyright owner. An example from the text is DVD copying. This rings a bell with me because I used to watch wrestling PPVs on television and never knew why it would not let you copy on a VHS tape. My parents explained to me that they had copyright laws because the company did not want people to tape them and sell them. Before every single PPV copyright laws are displayed on the screen and states that if one copies and sells it they will pay a fine or even face time in jail.
    Q2. Personally, virtual community means the same as it would in real life but virtual form. I consider Facebook a virtual community. I have friends on there and talk to them sometimes, even talking to people I probably would not in real life just because we never see each other. After venturing on Second Life, it is certainly a virtual community. I have been to many cyber spaces because I do not consider myself a “newbie” as Lessing puts it. Sometimes, I will just check my Facebook but usually I search all around the Net. I do research for school, Facebook, ESPN.com, WWE.com and much more! Cyberspace is very important to me because I like to explore all over. Cyber places I have been to are any social networking sites and instant messaging. The text brings up AOL and how it’s their own cyber place. I used to be on AOL a lot playing around with instant messenger. It was very interesting when I was a kid but I do not use it anymore. Twitter would be the big one for me now. I venture onto the site a lot and it is like its own place. People have their own virtual world online. Space has values because people put their time into their Internet life. If someone is invested in doing something online for the most part they are taking it very seriously. Someone does not want their reputation to be destroyed by the way they act online. Early Net enabled the types of people who like to do multiple tasks on the Internet. Power and control has a lot to do with it because people can go to almost any site they would like to. There are so many options out there it is crazy. We as human beings enjoy being in power and control. The Internet lets us make our own decisions all the time. If I wanted to go watch a sports game from the other night I can and in that second I could venture back over to Facebook. I believe it is the freedom of the Internet that we really enjoy.
    Q3. Lessig defines and describes Second Life as “a 3-D virtual world entirely built and owned by its residents.” He means by 3-D that everything in Second Life appears to be three dimensional such as the characters and places. It is a virtual word made by computers. My own experiences on Second Life have been very weird. I also did not know how to do much on it. I think a reason was that I do not know a lot of information on it and the time I spent on it was short. When I was on it everyone was very eager to talk and it freaked me out a bit. My own definition of a virtual world would be this “Any augmented reality environment online that has its own little world, with the ability to become a part of it with other people.”
    Q4. Cyberspace can be defined as different from the Internet because of architecture. “There are architectural features of the Internet that embed certain values,” (Lessig). Spaces are different from what you can search on the internet. If you compare Second Life with just something you search on the Internet there is a huge difference. The architectural difference comes into play with the virtual world. One knows they are in a virtual space because of how it looks. When someone searches the Internet, you are not in a little virtual world with other people running around. There are different in the way of atmosphere.

  10. 1. Lessig describes Cyberspace as regulated by many different entities. (1) The Audio Home Recording Act taxed blank tapes and regulated the code of digital reproduction. The Act requires producers of digital recording devices to install a chip in their systems that implements a code-based system to monitor the copies of any copy made on that machine. (2) It was also regulated through the Telecommunications Act of 1996. This mandated that a V-chip would facilitate the automatic blocking of TV broadcasts in which the criteria of content had not been determined. (3) In the Digital Millennium Copyright Act, Congress banned the creation and distribution of technologies “produced for the purpose of circumventing a technological measure that effectively controls access” to a copyrighted work, or “primarily designed or produced for the purpose of circumventing protection afforded by a technological measure that effectively protects a right of a copyright owner.”
    2.Virtual community is a place where can connect and communicate. Facebook, Instagram, Snapchat, Twitter, etc are a few places where I have been. What makes them a place, as well as a place of value, is the fact that family and friends can stay in touch and up to date on each others lives no matter the distance. Early net enabled those with a need to communicate via text, as it was the most efficient. For ex: the deaf & blind.
    3.Lessig defines and describes Second life as “a 3-D virtual world entirely built and owned by its residents.” He explains that it is described as 3D because the experiences are perceived as three-dimensional. A virtual world is objects and people concentrated by a computer. To me, second life slightly reminds of the game Sims, as that was my first reaction/comparison. It is a virtual world in the sense that you get to control your avatar. To me, virtual world is a place on the internet where you get to decide the fate of an avatar, you get to pick their life.
    4.Cyberspace is different from the Internet because there are “architectural features”to it that embed certain values. These features can change and if they do, the ethics that the Internet encourages will be altered as well.

  11. 1.Cyberspace is regulated by code. Congress created the Audio Home Recording Act, which taxed blank tapes and regulated the code of digital reproduction technologies directly. This is a way that Congress is regulating behavior through regulating code. DRM technologies stand for digital rights management technology. This adds code to digital content that prohibits people from just copying that particular content unless you are permitted by the DRM technology. The DMCA is the Digital Millennium Copyright Act that bans the creation and distribution of technologies that allows someone to copy a copyrighted work.
    2.Virtual community is a place where people can freely express themselves and interact with others without pressure. For example, AOL allowed one user to create up to five different screen names for just themselves. This way, you can create various personas and interact with certain people through your particular view. Space has values in the sense that there is no location that every user must pass through sooner or later. Also, there is not a place in public where people can complain and thus create a riot.
    3.Lessig describes Second Life as a 3-D virtual world entirely built and owned by its residents. All of the objects and people appear to be three-dimensional. The users are able to create their various worlds. I believe that a virtual world is a place where anyone can escape and be the person they want to be in that moment wherever they desire.
    4.The “end-to-end” principle describes the Internet in the way that it is supposed to remain as simple as possible. This has remained this way because the TCP/IP has a narrow function. They just deliver the packets to the end destination. In turn, this encourages people to create applications that are more innovative. The Internet is not a place; it’s just a medium, a way to get one thing from one end to the other. Architecture matters because there are some locations where community really matters and there are expectations. On the contrary, some places do not have a strong sense of community so there are rules implemented through code.

  12. 1. Cyberspace is regulated by many different entities according to Lessig;The Audio Home Recording Act, the Telecommunications Act and the Digital Millennium Copyright Act.
    2.A Virtual community is a place where people can freely express themselves and interact with others without pressure through multiple media websites and apps, for example Twitter, Instagram, WordPress. Any program where you can express yourself through. Friends and family can keep up with each other through these great apps.
    3.Lessig defines and describes Second life as “a 3-D virtual world entirely built and owned by its residents.” It is a virtual world where anyone can go to escape from this world we live in. Secondlife almost reminds me of the Sims but I never totally figured out everything you can do with SecondLife, really fun though!!
    4.Cyberspace is different from the Internet because there are “architectural features”to it that embed certain values. All of these features can be changed. If they are changed the ethics of the Internet will surely change as well.

  13. 1. Cyber space is regulated by different entities. The Audio Home Recording Act taxed blank tapes and regulated the code of digital reproduction. It was also regulated through the Telecommunications Act of 1996. This mandated that a V-chip would facilitate the automatic blocking of TV broadcasts in which the criteria of content had not been determined. In the Digital Millennium Copyright Act, Congress banned the creation and distribution of technologies “produced for the purpose of circumventing a technological measure that effectively controls access” to a copyrighted work, or “primarily designed or produced for the purpose of circumventing protection afforded by a technological measure that effectively protects a right of a copyright owner.”
    2. Virtual community is a place where people can communicate and connect. They can express what they want because sometimes its easier to communicate virtually then in person. Friends can stay in touch through things like Facebook, twitter, tinder, instagram and there are more and more everyday.
    3. Lessig describes second life as 3-D virtual world entirely built and owned by its residents.The user can create their own virtual world and basically live a second life on this game. For me, second life was hard to figure out because I’m not very good with computer games.
    4. Cyberspace is different then the internet. The “end-to-end” principle tells us that the internet is supposed to simple and easy. Cyberspace is more complicated and things can be altered in cyberspace. When they are altered this then alters the internet.

  14. 1.) Lessig talks about how the life in cyber space is restricted through coding and this coding is what shows everything. Code enforces the rules, and digital rights management also restricts people. DRM does not allow people to steal and send things to other people, along with the DMCA, who do not allow the access to copyright work. Things such as piracy, copying over songs, movies or plagiarism are all examples of this.
    2.) To me, a virtual community is something where there are people who log in with different names, all with some sort of common goal they are using their space for. Second life is one example of this, for people just to socialize. Other things such as twitter is a more structured and informative cyber space where videos and pictures are sent along with short tweets. These are all “places” because they have an internet web base/url name. people can use these spaces for whatever they choose to. Twitter is seen as a news site now, but it was more of a fun, interactive site 5 years ago, and it has developed into what people want. Some people only follow certain accounts such as comedians or athletes. The early net was something that people could use to connect and create different people and kinds of people. People have control and power over these ways they interact and can use it in many different ways to interact.
    3.) He defines second life as a 3d virtual world built by the residents. He says this is a virtual world because of the code and restrictions it has on itself. This is not a very in depth definition but Lessig is right. I think a virtual world is not necessarily 3d, but a platform that is set up and users create it into whatever they think it is best for.
    4.) Cyberspace is different from the internet because of its architecture. The internet is how certain things are connected, by cyberspace refers to a more specific place like second life or twitter.

  15. 1) According to Lessig, “life in cyberspace is regulated primarily through the code of cyberspace.” There is code that can be written to protect a person’s “property” online, allowing this property to not be stolen. Cyberspace is regulated by many different entities according to Lessig;The Audio Home Recording Act, the Telecommunications Act and the Digital Millennium Copyright Act.

    2) A virtual community is a community where different users bond over a similar site online. Something such as Second life because people interact with each other on a virtual community. Choices mean that differently constituted space enable and disable differently. Users are able to choose how you want to represent yourself. Early Net enabled classes of people who were disabled in real-space life. This gives these people the chance to control their lives and have power over who they are, how they act, and what they look like.

    3) “A 3-D virtual world entirely built and owned by its residents,” is what Lessig said. He describes it as a virtual world because of the sense that objects and people are rendered by computers. I believe the idea of virtual reality takes apart from everyday life.

    4) The difference between cyberspace and the internet are the people and the users that give both meaning. The internet is the whole and cyberspace is the communication part of that whole.

  16. 1) Cyberspace is regulated by many different entities, according to Lessig. For example, the Audio Home Recording Act (AHRA) taxed blank tapes, regulated the digital reproduction code, and required producers of digital recording to monitor the copies made on that machine.

    2) Free expression and low-pressure interaction: this is virtual community. For example, AOL allows users to create multiple accounts with various personas. Because virtual reality consumes no physical place, the potential for physical rebuttal, confrontation, or riot is eliminated.

    3) Second life is “a 3-D virtual world entirely built and owned by its residents,” as defined by Lessig. Want to escape your world? Start you Second Life and visit our virtual community. Feel free to express yourself and interact with others (i.e. The Sims).

    4) While sharing some characteristics, the internet and cyberspace are different entities. The “end-to-end” principle proposes the simplicity of the internet. However complications arrive in cyberspace. Information can be manipulated and this affects everyone involved.

  17. 1. The author talks about how the life in cyber space is restricted through complex codes and the ways in which coding shows every detail. Codes help to enforces the rules online while digital rights management help to restricts people according to Lessig. DRM does not allow people to steal and send things to other people. With the Digital Millennium Copyright Act, it limits the ability for people to copyright work. Things such as online piracy, copying songs, movies, or plagiarism in general can all be examples the these.
    2.Virtual community to me is a place where I can connect and communicate with the people I know or want to know. Facebook, Instagram, Watsapp, Twitter, and others are just a few examples of online communities I’m part of. What makes them a place and with value, is the fact that family and friends can stay in touch and keep up to date on each others lives without having geographical distance be an issue. Early net enabled those with the need to communicate through the use text, which was efficient for some. An example of this would be the the deaf who could communicate online like everyone else through SMS.
    3.According to Lessig, the virtual wold created second-life is owned by the people who use it. In my experience this allows people to express themselves the way that people do in other media and in real life. Though not for me, people can get on second-life to see how they can efficiently network through their avatar.
    4. The internet is like building plans of a building or house, cyberspace is basically like the individual rooms that make up the building. While the internet aims at offering the overall project or the creation of the online world, cyberspace is merely the building blocks and materials that make it up with individual materials like social media in virtual communities like second life. This is how I envision the architecture that Lessig describes.

  18. 1. Lessig stats that code is a regulator in cyberspace because it defines the terms upon which cyberspace is offered. Cyberspace is regulated by Audio Home Recording Act, Telecommunications Act, and Digital Millennium Copyright Act.
    2. A virtual community to me would be like 2nd Life or even some video games that allows you to build your own character. Cyberspace could be a chat room online and a cyber-place would more along the lines of 2nd life.
    3. Lessig defines 2nd Life as a 3D virtual world entirely built and owned by its residents and that is a virtual world in terms that objects and people are rendered by computers.
    4. The internet is what makes the cyberspace work. Without the internet there would not be any cyberspaces. Cyberspace could be linked more to a community that people join like 2nd life or other virtual reality like places.

  19. 1. Cyberspace is regulated because others have access to our work and we need a way to protect it from being stolen. The code helps our online identities to be safe and secure. We can only regulate a behavior if we enact some type of code, therefor they go hand in hand. A copyright is very serious, and laws such as DMCA are essential to upholding a copyright in cyberspace.

    2. Virtual community to me means being able to share real-time communication. In Second Life, when you communicate with another player they are able to respond immediately. It doesn’t matter if I am here in the U.S. and someone else is in Asia, if we are on the game at the same time we are communicating in real-time. In Second Life when you go to a different location the scenery changes, and there are various activities to do. To me, they seem the most like a place that any online game could provide. Early Net enabled people who prefer to talk behind a phone, or computer to do so. Not everyone enjoys face-to-face interaction but interacting with others is healthy. This allowed those people who would not normally interact as much with others an opportunity to do so. Having the power to decide how you want to portray yourself online helps people find out more about themselves and who they want to be.

    3. Lessig’s definition of Second Life is “a 3-D virtual world entirely built and owned by its residents.” My experiences with Second Life support this definition. It did seem 3-D especially when I would travel by flying. To be able to occupy a space, for example, when you are in a club dancing helps me define a virtual world. When I think of virtual worlds I think of Second Life.

    4. The internet is just a medium for the use of cyberspace. What makes them different is that cyberspace has this architecture, which is set in place to follow. Different programs allow for different architecture. For example, I have never built anything in Second Life, but I know you can.

  20. Code Regulation and Online Communities

    1. Lessig says “life in cyberspace is regulated primarily though the code of cyberspace.” Code is a regulator because it enforces the standards and the rules of how it is to function. In second life I agree that these interactions are unique.
    2. Virtual community based on my experiences means a network that allows for the sharing of media amongst one another to commence. I have not experienced a real impact to a virtual avatar type community. Places that I have experiences this virtual community is Google hangouts, facebook, and instagram. These places are a virtual community because; I can keep in contact with friends that live in Germany or who go to different colleges. These places allow for me to see what they are doing in their lives. Space has value because there is no set location that everyone must use .
    3. Lessig defines and describes second life as a 3d virtual world built by its residents. Second life is similar to the game the Sims where you can escape from the real world and live virtual. This however, is not a good outlet to use to stray away from problems because, they will not get solved in their entirety and create more turmoil in the long run. My own definition of the virtual world is a online place of value that allows you to experience a sense of appreciation.
    4. Cyberspace is different from the internet because of the architectural features. In cyberspace things can be changed and altered.

  21. Latrice Ginwright

    Lessig argued that cyberspace is primarily regulated by code. He says code embeds values. Code is a regulator in which it has the right to control. For example with DRM the article states, “DRM add code to digital content that disables the simple ability to copy or distribute that content. “ Also because of code it allowed Congress to create an act for DMCA, which it protects the copyrighted work of any music from being copied. This privacy protection is because of the code content.

    Based on experiences online, what virtual community means to me is just simply communicating or interacting with people online. Cyber places that I have been a part of communities like Second Life or the Sims. These virtual worlds can become like a community because as a user I actively was involved and interacting with different users from all other and whatever avatar they chose. These cyberspaces became so realistic because they involved homes, jobs, recreational places so it just made me feel as though I’m still interacting with the world but just online. Spaces have values because even though it’s online it can limit who has access to interact whether its through chat rooms, digital envelops, or intranet gateways. The early Net enables the newer users who are more tech savvy. The power that it gives is that it allows them access and to be able to portray different online facets of the web.

    Lessig describes Second Life as “A 3-D virtual world entirely built and owned by its residents.” He gave it this description because the people and objects are completely controlled by the computer. In my own words with my experience, Second Life is space of reality but just through the computer. In this world it is still set up as real life with real opportunities to explore and responsibilities but still has a sense of fairy tale.

    The internet differs from cyberspace because of its architectural features. For example the article talks about the functionality of TCP/IP and so with this the Internet is broken down into packets of data. Cyberspace is comprised within the Internet so this space can create something such as Second Life, but it only functions through the internet.

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